Work Performed Survey Report

 

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We are but a few of the Survivors of the 1977-1980 Enewetak Atoll Atomic Debris Cleanup Mission in the Marshall Islands. 

Our Original Mission was to relocate and entomb radioactive fallout and debris from the surface of the islands of Enewetak Atoll so the dri-Enewetak Islanders could return to their beautiful homeland of 40 Islands in the Marshall Islands.

We accomplished our Humanitarian Mission in 1980. Currently, some of us have health challenges related to cleaning up radiation produced by 43 atomic bombs tested in the Pacific Proving Grounds during the Cold War’s Atomic Test Program.

On May 6th 2014, we started collecting information about our health challenges.

As of November 22nd 2015, we have 330 responses to our survey.

321 responded to the item: “Lived on Island.” 198 said Lojwa and 123 replied Enewetak. The remaining 9 (of the 330) respondents did not reply to the question.

During the three year Atomic Cleanup Mission, the majority of the 8,000+ Atomic Cleanup Mission’s workers lived on Lojwa Island. The Mission’s Headquarters was located on Enewetak Island.

Here is how many of the Enewetak Atoll Atomic Cleanup Veterans answered the inquiry: “Description of work performed at Enewetak Atoll.” Respondent names have been omitted for privacy reasons. And some information has been edited to maintain confidential information.

  • Coxswain (Boat Driver) for the Navy’s MK-8 craft. Carried personnel from Island to Island along with hauled Vehicles and Contaminated Materials out to dumping site middle of Atoll. Did wear Chem suits (gray) with airpacs from time to time while hauling contaminated materials to dump site in Atoll.
  • Worked in motor maintenance platoon on Enewetak as a welder.
  • Served with Jimmy Clem and the Body Snatchers as a Medic.
  • Engineer Mesh-2 , an old LCU boat with a modified well deck used to transport “hot soil” from the northern islands to Runit.
  • Coxswain for MK-8.
  • Removed debris and hauled it to Runit.
  • Performed work as an electrician on board Landing Craft Utility, LCM boat and other small boat. Provided preventive maintenance and repairs to the various electrical systems.
  • ENEWETAK CLEANUP OPERATION – POWER PLANT OPERATOR. I RAN THE FOUR GENERATORS TO SUPPLY POWER TO THE ISLAND.
  • Radiological support.
  • I ran dozers and front-end loaders my whole time there along with a road grader every once in a while. As with most others, we were never told of the dangers of our mission nor were we given any sort of protective gear. Not even a simple paper mask. I breathed in all sorts of dust and who knows what else. I must say being on Enewetak was the best and worst duty I ever had. The best due to the team work, operating time and relaxed atmosphere we worked in, the worst due to what we were exposed to and our governments continued refusal to assist us with our health issues and coming forth with the truth about our exposure.
  • Construction.
  • During the above time frame of “Tour # 1”, I was stationed onboard USS Okinawa (LPH3) in the Western Pacific. Our task group pulled into the lagoon at Enewetak two different times, for a total period of about 1 week. The ships off-loaded equipment, vehicles and supplies and on-loaded equipment and vehicles (probably broken). I don’t know which island we were close to but I do remember standing on the flight deck looking and seeing one small building and one palm tree and wondering why the people wanted to move back. I cannot tell you the exact dates I was there but I’m sure that whatever records the Army kept would reflect the times Okinawa and her escorts were there.
  • Radio maintenance, Nav-Aids maintenance, telephone operator.
  • Service and repairs on the diamond reo cement mixers.
  • Assigned to Taxi boats, as well as with the EOD dive boat.
  • Operated batch plant, pumped slurry into crater.
  • I was an Amphibian Operator of a LARC-60 Our vehicle was loaded with contaminated debris and we delivered to the dump site that was instructed to us.
  • Dropped of workers on their respective Islands on our way to Boken where we would pick up a 60 ton dump truck fully loaded with soil and take it to Runit where we would off load and wait for the dump truck to come back and we’d head back to Boken to do it all again at the end of the day we would pick up anybody that needed a ride back to Lowjoa.
  • Crane operator.
  • POL.
  • Worked on Enewetak as mechanic, keeping all the vehicles running. Specialized on the RTL -10 forklifts. Worked with a great group of brothers.
  • Worked 6 days a week for 7 months. Found human Bones/remains on Island Janet.
  • Team Chief for the 309th Trans Det. Fwd. Prov. attached to Co. A 84th ENG BN. Maintenance for the 4 LARCs assigned to the project. Other duties as assigned.
  • Supported power generation and motorized in maintenance shop on Enewetak.
  • Acting Adjutant for Lowja S-1. Was ordered LAST MAN OUT from Lowja during Typhoon Mary. Call sign LOWJA 1. Preformed all type of administrative duties in support of Army, Navy, Air Force and civilian personnel. Performed duties as Tax Officer. Learned to use bucket loader and went out with surveyors to neigboring islands. Also, got shit burning detail before the toilets were put in.
  • Surveyed and staked the ring wall on the Crater and also staked 25 meter grids across several northern islands.
  • All the fun stuff and then some!
  • Mechanic. Repaired trucks & dozers.
  • 1SG.
  • LARC60 Amphibian crewman.
  • Poured concrete used cutting torches to cut metal out of beaches.
  • I was a squad leader of a construction crew. We cleared land framed pads for tents and then buildings for the base camp on Lojwa. Also ran the generators and set up the power station for Lojwa.
  • Arrived as part of the advanced party, flew on the UH1H helicopters doing fly overs of each of the islands at about 100 feet with test equipment on board that was supposed to measure and map out the contaminated areas. They were all contaminated. Flew Medivac and search and rescue missions. Perform other duties as assigned. Visited most of the islands by boat to conduct more test and recover equipment. Ate Prime Rib every Wednesday night in the mess hall. I must say the food there for us was damn good.
  • Driving Truck General Labor Jackhammer Operator.
  • Repaired work boats.
  • Executive officer Runit. Day to day operations of Runit. Right hand of CO.
  • Member of First Combat Platoon, Rock and Re-Bar. Removed any and all man made substance from the island of Enjubi (Janet). Most was hand lifted, hand carried either to the bucket loader on 5 ton truck. We also unearthed many unexploded ordinances from the WWII Battle of Enewetak on the island of Enjebi.
  • Checked personnel, equipment, and various other things to ensure that appropriate radiation protection measures were being utilized. Took monthly trips by whaler to outlying islands and placed dosimeters and radiation badges on the islands to check the levels of radiation on them. Also assisted the University of Hawaii with a testing of the tideal runs around the islands.
  • Worked at J-2, Radiation Control. Documented readings of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) for historical records.
  • Concrete Forming Crew on the Cactus Crater, Security guard on Lojwa, Sealed Up concrete bunkers on various islands.
  • UH-1H Medevac Helicopter Pilot.
  • Drove imp for EG&G. Set up IMP at grids on islands to take radiation readings. Also did readings on samples brought back to Lojwa by EG&G personnel. I believe the picture on your site of the IMP and driver is me, possibly when the army took me and Dick Connerton to Belle by army LARC.
  • Started out running the MARS station on Lojwa in April of ’78 and was moved to Enewetak sometime around September of ’78, to A Co and worked in the motor pool until I left in march of ’79.
  • Calibrated Radiac equipment that was used to measure the exposure level of the troops working on Runit.
  • Company B = Used explosives to blow up big pieces of concrete into little pieces. Removed concrete & re-bar by hand. Company A = Cleared screening machine that was dumping debris into the crater.
  • Welder / Body Fender work.
  • Worked at the rock crusher for a while then to the crater and the track drill.
  • Radioactive debris pickup. Cactus Crater placement.
  • Wrecker operator, TAMMS Clerk, Mechanic.
  • I was the battalion mail clerk for the 84th. I was responsible for the movement of all the mail and to provide mail services to all of Enewetak’s army personnel. In support of our troops, I traveled to all areas of the atoll where our men were located. I would prefer to take one of the helicopters when I could, but I spent many a long day traveling by mike boat. Included in the job was taking care of the nightly movies and the equipment.{all 16mm reels} Since the mail came only once a week on the Tuesday resupply C-141, I helped out in other areas where it was needed.The MARS station was good spot to hang out since it was one of the few areas that had a/c.
  • Started as LCM Boat Engineer and ended as Engine Shop Leading Petty Officer & Head Troubleshooter.
  • I was initially assigned to Lojwa upon arrival in the Marshall Island. Once we cleaned up and shut down Lojwa, I was redeployed to Enewetak where I served with the Navy boat crews ferrying personnel, vehicles, equipment, and supplies between the islands.
  • Admin and Day to Day duties on Runit.
  • BM-1 Craftmaster LCU-1552 (MESH III), Inter-island hauler of personnel, equipment, radiated soil and debris.
  • Crane operator on a barge in the middle of lagoon.
  • Engine-man.
  • Worked on board a warping tug with three Causeways. I was TAD there from ACB-1 from Cornado Ca.. While there the duties performed was transporting equipment to various islands in the atoll. On one occasion I sunk on this tug while transporting it to the Holmes and Narver Pier for demolition. At the age of 26 I started having issues with my legs. I was diagnosed with Peripheral Arterial Disease. Also several breathing issues, Heart Disease with Bypass surgery at 36 years old.
  • Build the five hundred man base camp.
  • Serviced Aircraft and area with fuel. Provided fuel support to other islands as well.
  • Varied responsibilities as member of the (J-3) Joint Task Group Operations Center as Sr Draftsman/illustrator. Drafted radiological maps that guided the US Army Element as they excised radiation-contaminated soil and provided illustration support for command briefings. As Joint Task Group Operations Radio Operator assumed air/ground radio control responsibilities which included all MAC flights, Army Helicopters and international ship traffic and telephone operator for the Joint Task Group. In addition, as “Charlie One” broadcasted all “Fire in the hole” and “All Clear” signals.
  • Opened cement bags all day long.
  • Construction of base camp and utility systems on Lojwa.
  • Spent a couple of days there in 1977 offloading equipment and personnel as part of a WESTPAC cruise.
  • I D Hot Spot Air Sample Collections Work with Army Engineer’s with clean up of Specific Hot Spots.
  • Supported the Command Group with all administrative support. Of note, prepared the Early Resettlement Letter.
  • I was a squad leader pouring the slabs on the crater. Also the Squad leader elected to pour the last slab at the top of the crater to complete the capping of the crater.
  • Drove dump truck hauled dirt from the LARC to Runit.
  • Operator of the Army’s LARC-60 Ton Amphibian Vehicle. Carried contaminated debris to dumping site.
  • During WestPac, we visited Enewetak twice. First in August and returned in January. We assisted with the cleanup mission by removing metal materials from the island by boat which was loaded by hand. Transferred the metals by hand onto our ship. This took several days to load. Weeks later while underway, we dropped the stern gate and dumped all of it at sea. We repaired damaged boats on the island. Many needed welding. Many sailors refused to work sitting in protest on the flight deck. They were angry we were in radioactive waters and this material was being brought on board while already being exposed to asbestos everywhere on the ship.
  • Platoon Leader for 3rd Shop, A Company. We performed all the heavy maintenance of Wheeled Vehicles and Engineer Equipment for all elements of the 84th Engineer Battalion on the Enewetok Atoll. We also maintained all the Generators and sent contact trucks to the various work sites throughout the Atoll. We supported the LARCs detachment, the Air Force and the Navy.
  • Engineer on Maggie 2 – transported personnel for clean up work from Enewetak to the Islands of Janet, Medren, Runit and Lojwa, transporting contaminated soil and debris from various Islands to Runit. Transported heavy Equipment from Enewetak and Lojwa to various Islands for clean up work. Engineer on Water Taxi – transported personnel to various Islands. Fireman on LCU’s.
  • We took care of transportation of equipment around the atoll.
  • Water beach clean, up transported vehicles to different islands,put in causeway section pier.
  • Prepared crater for capping of cement and blasting of coral reef.
  • Clean up scrap metal and old buildings. Blew up barge slip, etc.
  • -For all landing craft (LCU, LCM, Boston Whaler)-Electrician (EM) and Inner Communication (IC) operation and maintenance senior lead. Navy Work Center Supervisor for EM, IC and Electronic Technician Navy Rates. Joint Services troubleshooting and repair electrician (Army, Air Force, Navy, Coast Guard & Atomic Energy Commission). Core member Typhoon Recovery Cleanup Crew. Weekly inspection and repair as needed of all naval navigation lights throughout the Atoll. Under Army direction Enewetak Joint Services Motion Picture Projector Operator and Maintenance (Navy NEC-4613).
  • Removed approx. 7-10 inches of hot topsoil from island of Lojwa and transported by 5 ton dump trucks which were driven on to LCUs and taken to the island of Runit and dumped into a large crater.
  • Military Police Duties.
  • I drove visitors from island to island on a Boston 22′ whaler with twin Johnson 70hp engines.
  • Radiation protection training, radiation exposure monitoring.
  • Went to Enjebi (Janet) every day started up the equipment and worked on the trucks and dozers and equip that broke down I drove the service truck.
  • Aircraft Turbine Engine Repairman, kept those UH-1H, Hueys flying. In addition we had to constantly monitor all the aircraft flights with flight following. Whenever the Hueys were in the air we maintained constant contact with them by radio and log in their position around the atoll. At times we’d get a bit concerned while they were on the northern end of the atoll at low altitude and we lost radio contact for more then 15 min.
  • Repaired Equipment, on Lojwa and Enjebi and Bokin islands.
  • S-1 Clerk, courier to Lojwa for various documents, mail, supplies. Backup admin for outlying islands. Other duties as assigned.
  • I ran landing craft to dump sites from island to island and equipment.
  • Worked at support maint shop repairing heavy equipment using a contact truck called 8 ball maintence. I was stationed on Enewetak for 19 months.
  • Operations NCOIC for B Company, 84th Engrs.
  • Set up base camp, built tin huts-power plant and many other buildings and poured tons of concrete for huts.
  • Processed all defective cleanup vehicles, and parts for return to states and replacement.
  • Removed underwater “junk”, tanks and other metal objects from the bay, and blew up various objects to include beached and rusting ship bows on Island reef.
  • Vessel Master of an US Army LARC-60 Amphibian Vehicle. Carried contaminated debris on amphibian to a designated dumping site.
  • Worked on Cactus crater dome.
  • Air sampler repair, resupply, other duties as assigned.
  • Prepared construction documents for Lojwa Base Camp buildings and infrastructure. Prepared construction documents for the Atomic Debris Containment Structure known as the Cactus Dome on Runit Island. Prepared charts, graphs, and critical path method schedules for construction and cleanup operations. Updated the Joint Task Group’s operations board after collecting man-hours, equipment-hours and contaminated materials transportation reports from Lojwa and Runit Executive Officers. Scheduled helicopter flights between Enewetak, Lojwa and other islands. Provided mail clerk duties for the 84th Engineer Battalion on Enewetak Island and Lojwa Island.
  • Rock Crushing, Reef Drilling and Blasting, 20 Ton Dump Truck Operator, Cactus Dome Key Wall Builder.
  • Crew on LARCs delivering troops to islands and hauling dump trucks with contaminated soil, such as Ionizing radiation, out to barge to be unloaded by excavator.
  • Operated electric generating power plant on Lojwa.
  • Engineer on Maggie 2 , transported contaminated soil and debris from several different Islands, Medren, Janet, to Runit, transported Personnel working on clean up, mostly Army from Enewetak to Lojwa and Runit . Engineer on water taxis’- transported personnel from Enewetak to Lojwa. Fireman on LCU’S- transported heavy equipment to Islands for clean up work on Lojwa and Runit and back to Enewetak. Transported contaminated soil and debris to Runit. Transported personnel working on clean up to Lojwa and Runit.
  • Ran the Power Plant on Lojwa. Sometimes, we would perform repairs on generators on other islands if needed. On my tour, I do not remember the exact dates. I traveled a lot for my job.
  • Whaler Coxswain.
  • Construction supervisor, managed heavy equipment operations.
  • Boat engineer on Mike boat. ( Maggie 5). Mostly transporting troops and equipment from Enewetak to Lojwa and Enjebi.
  • Bull dozer operator, and poured concrete.
  • Member of Advanced Party. Clear the island of Lowja of vegitation and start building the 500 man base camp for regular party to follow. Carpenter work and helped tie det cord for blasting coral away for foundation of water purification and electrical generation plant.
  • Legal Clerk and Admin NCO for all military services on atoll. Unofficial Military Photographer. VIP escort and MWO boat operator. Spent time on all items and documented progress on crypt. Also worked with University of Hawaii as support diver and underwater photographer.
  • Demolition on concrete structures on different and fuel tank on beach. Was put on concrete ship to blow it up then they decide to keep it was close we had the c 4 on it . Drove cement truck on Runit filling in the crater.
  • Participated in the air, cargo and mail operations, as well as air terminal operations on Enewetak Atoll for the USAF element. Lived and worked at the Air Terminal, along with US Army personnel sharing the hut at the airfield. Processed all mail, cargo and passengers onto, and off the island for two TDY terms.
  • Carpenter.
  • Operated tool room for approximately one month, operated fuel point on Lojwa for one month, construction equipment repair on Runit rest of tour.
  • Worked in Mess Hall.
  • First tour: I was in charge of the first joint Army-Navy team to move aggregate from the stockpile on Enjebi (Janet) to Lojwa Island (Ursula) for use in the construction of the forward base camp. Our work began on 8 April 1977 under my supervision (Chief Boatswain’s Mate Roger Black). During the week my team and I camped out on Enjebi and utilized the facilities of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory’s trailer (mainly for cooking). We lived in a tent by the trailer. We anchored the Landing Craft (LCM-8) off the beach of Enjebi at night and swam ashore. We generally made two (2) runs a day from Enjebi to Lojwa with the well deck of the LCM loaded with Aggregate. Second tour: I was the Naval element Assistant Officer-in-Charge. I was also the Craftmaster of Mash-3 an Army Landing Craft Utility (125 foot LCU). I assisted in the transportation of material (Bulk Haul) from the clean up site to Runit (Yvonne) or to dump site’s in the lagoon. I was also part of the atoll evacuation during the typhoon of late December 1977. I moved over 300 Plus personnel (Army, Navy, Air Force) from Lojwa to Enewetak in the well deck of my LCU at night, during a very heavy rain. After most of the atoll personnel were evacuated from Enewetak to Guam, 25 selected personnel (of which I was one of them) stayed on the Atoll during the typhoon. We were there to clean the runway, of any debris, so that aircraft would be able to land when personnel returned. I am mentioned by name on page 152 of the book “The Radiological Cleanup of Enewetak Atoll” by the Defense Nuclear Agency, Washington D.C. of 1981.
  • Lojwa Animal. Crew aboard the LARC-60 amphibious watercraft. Removed contaminated debris from various Islands and hauled to Runit. I was there for the final draw down phase and capping. I may be a little off on my assigned dates.
  • Supply, truck driving, handling small debris.
  • Loaded aircraft including radioactive samples.
  • I was mechanic work on everything. Lojwa Animal.
  • Concrete Crew Cement finisher.
  • Rock and Rebar Crew. Main focus Enjebi.
  • Power plant operator and water distillation plant operator.
  • Military Police. Was on Lojwa investigating several incidents. Plus, was on Enewetok.
  • Ran the MARS Station from April until August. Extended because they could not find a replacement for me for another tour, sometime in September I was moved to Enewetak and worked in the main telephone exchange building and ended up in the A co motor pool until I left in Mar of 1979.
  • On Lojwa. Started in the Engine shop the to Maggie 8. Closed Lojwa moved to Enewatak. Transferred from Maggie’s to LCU’s before leaving Enewatak.
  • Power Plant Operations and Mechanic.
  • Operated 5 cubic yard bucket loader unloading soil boats; operated D-8 dozer pushing up blast rock on the reef and other D-8 tasks like trying to remove key wall sections that were deemed out of place; helped set up quarry and demo blasts and worked on the rock crusher. Was on the crew that demobilized Lojwa in October 1979.
  • Building Base Camp – My assignment was over the squad installing plumbing in the mess hall.
  • Base camp construction 500 man.
  • Nuclear cleanup.
  • Repair of all power generation (3KW-100KW), welding (Lincoln), heavy construction (D8, 440 grader etc) equipment.
  • Cleaned up waste. Capped the crater.
  • I drilled holes in the coral to blow it up to make concrete.
  • Advance party 1st co. To go. Built huts to live in.
  • Cleanup debris on Enewetak and Medren.
  • 62B20. Worked on heavy equipment on Runit. Was shop NCOIC while there.
  • Squad leader under Pappy John Statton, SSG. Several 20T International Dumps and a few cranes operated by Lobo and Chico. It was a great experience there, with lots of great friends. I am currently contracting in Afghanistan and this week found out a friend of mine here was also TDY to Enewetak. His name is Miguel Rubio III and he was on the main island from late ’78 to mid ’79. I retired from the Army with almost 28 years and Enewetak is one of my better memories! I still think of the islands whenever I smell wet canvas…
  • Bustin’ pots and sweepin’ floors. Also, feeding the Animals.
  • Operator of Lojwa Power Plant consisting of four Caterpillar D-398 Generator sets operating at 500KW each at 4160 Volts AC, including Caterpillar Switch-gear.
  • Drink beer. EOD disposing of lots of WWII ordnance Drink beer Radiation air monitoring, decon and sample taking. Blew coral away to make channels for boats into various islands. Drink beer Called bingo once a week. Got in trouble for taking a bath one night in the medics water buffalo. Got in trouble for sneaking diving gear on to Runit and diving in one of the craters.
  • Hauled topsoil from Janet to Runit on Maggie 9. Orange LCM 8. Then on Maggie 3 LCM 8 on Enewetak hauling personnel and towing barges out to the middle of the lagoon to off load metal and debris.
  • Mixing concrete and building tin huts.
  • Maintained and repaired Air sampler units used on contaminated islands being cleaned up.
  • Was C company commander for the first 6 months and then operations officer forward on Lojwa.
  • Build the Five hundred man base camp on Lojwa.
  • Operated bucket loader removing hard debris and soil from various islands for disposal. As a combat engineer, was also involved in several demolition projects.
  • Everything heavy junk to picker and operator.
  • Base Camp Construction.
  • Equipment Mechanic at Lojwa.
  • Medical corpsman, going to the different islands every day. Worked with rec department. Had a band and performed at the em club, and the USO Show.
  • Anchored off Runit/Cactus Crater for refit operations of Lojwa lCM-8 in our welldeck lpd-8 dubuque after well deck operations tighten down jet fuel jp-5 tank tops in our well-deck lpd-8 with torque wrench put hands in radioactive sand from craft and water from lagoon off runit/cactus crater as well craft brought sand and radioactive water in welldeck had two tours of clean-up on repairing lcm-8 from runit/cactus crater! Sept 18 to 20 and again after typhoon came through off runit nov14 to 19 1978! also conducted flight operations to other ships in clean-up!
  • Radiation monitoring of personnel and equipment.
  • I was a AF Medic from Hickam AFB, Hi. Originally assigned to medical support on Lojwa and worked with SSgt Steve and Capt (Dr) Davis. Then after only a month, I had to escort Army Capt. F. Brown on an emergency Medivac (he ended up have severe appendicitis) back to Tripler Army Hosp. I returned a week later, however because there needed to be at least 3 people to see and treat the patients on Lojwa, they had someone to take my place, so I remained on Enewetak and worked with Maj. (Dr) Means and the rest of the AF staff in the main clinic. I did a lot of snorkeling (esp LOVED the U of Hawaii’s reef farm where I had my first close encounter with a black tip reef shark), swimming, working out at the gym, played softball on a great team (I was the pitcher) and of course….SATURDAY NIGHT LIVE!!!! I’m fortunate in that I don’t have any exposure related issues, just a lot of Basal Cell skin problems. It’s great finding this site and even found an old Army buddy that I befriended there, I just now contacted after all of these years. Good luck to all of my fellow Vets….Army, AF and Navy (I have to include those civilians that made life a wee bit better….food service, scientists and other civilians).
  • I flew UH-1H “Huey” helicopters on administrative, MEDIVAC, and search and rescue flights around Enewetak Atoll.
  • Worked on Medren picking up metal debris from the beaches and around the island. Lived on Enewetok. Second tour lived on Lojwa and worked on Runit driving a cement mixer from the batch plant to the crater, and worked security on Lojwa in the evenings.
  • When I first arrived, I was in HHC 84th Engr Bn. I worked at the warehouse (where the short pants, jungle boots, and boonie caps were issued to newbees. After 2 weeks I transferred to B Co, 84th Engr on Lojwa. I was the supply clerk for B Co. until B Co. finished cleaning the islands up north. I believe it was late July when B. Co closed down. A Co. remained on Lojwa as they finished the cap on the Runit crater. I left Lojwa to rejoin Headquarter and Headquarters Company (HHC) and worked in the Battalion S-4 office until I left in October. A group of us from Enewetak went to Runit three different times for a daylong ‘police call’ cleaning up the reef of rebar and steel fragments, etc. I was on Runit the day the center section was poured to finish the crater cap.
  • Traveled from Lojwa to other hot islands for clean up. Worked to build storage building for concert for dome. Also worked in rec area teaching photography development. Other duties as requested to do.
  • Took contaminated soil to lagoon by LCM-8 boats.
  • Landing craft troop support.
  • Cleaned up Meridian for 4 months; worked on concrete dome area at Runit for 2 months.
  • Quarry and asphalt paving. Drill and Blasting Section as well. Specialist responsible for Operation of all Crushers, Generators and Batch Plant operations and all related equipment. Worked with Holmes & Narver Specialist trouble shooting and putting into operation the Batch Plant, constructing the generating shed wiring up all related equipment and supervising the debris separation from all foreign materials, bombs, shells, mortars, mines, bullets, wood, metal, all radioactive debris, machine guns, occasional grenades, all left over from WWII, carry what was HOT to the crater & throw it in, detonate all old ordinance at the end of the day when not in operation at the plant. Policing area of HOT junk and making 270 loads of hot concrete a day at peak production times.
  • 20 ton Junk driver. Hauled off debris.
  • I started out running the 5YD bucket loader on Runit, unloading ‘hot’ soil boats. Was reassigned to the quarry running the D8K dozer pushing up the blast rock plus whatever else they wanted the D8 to do, like removing key wall sections because someone didn’t think the key wall was round. Also worked on the rock crusher, took part in setting up quarry blasts on the reef and demo blasts. I was on the demobilization party for Lojwa. Lived 9 months on Lojwa and 3 months on Enewetak. I also have the experience of almost sinking a LARC by pushing debris out of it with a D7 in the middle of the lagoon. Don’t know whose idea it was, but it was exciting.
  • Radiological controls, assisted Scientist on northern islands.
  • Billeting NCO, Accounting NCO.
  • E-4 (Specialist 4th Class) Communications Installation/Repair and Operator w/Crypyprographic, 84th Engineer Bn., Schofield Barracks, Hi., Attached from 426th Signal Bn, IVIII Airborne Corps, Ft Bragg, N.C. February 1978 through August 1978. Assisted (by order) to travel to various islands for clean-up operations. Handled various debris, found underwater mine field off Lojwa. Stationed on LOJWA BASE CAMP. AKA Lojwa Animal. Also employed by Holmes and Narver as Bartender for the Lojwa Sandcastle. Only eight days remaining In-Service upon leaving Islands.
  • Operated concrete pump-pumped contaminated concrete into crater that was capped.
  • Advanced party of 37. Built 500 man base camp at Lojwa.
  • I was an M.P. assigned to the joint task force.
  • Repair and maintenance of air samplers, both aboard landing craft and on shore; inventory and maintenance of the air sampler repair facility; resupply of materiel used on the island; other duties as assigned.
  • Supervised the construction of the high voltage electrical power distribution grid for the island of Lojwa.
  • Drove erma /troop truck around Lojwa & across causeway to next island. Wore ducksuits on top of buildings on Janet ( ran jackhammers in the sun) then cleanup to drop debris in ocean.
  • Ran the pneumatic tools, explosives, retrieval of contaminated debris to load on lark, construction, vehicle maint.
  • Rock and rebar crew.
  • We helped the workers who were stationed there. We helped repair their boats and gave them supplies. We also played them in a softball game.
  • I was a medic at the clinic, providing medical care/support, also did food inspections at the dining hall.
  • Drove 20 ton dump truck. Moved contaminated soil from Enjebi and another island to Runit. Trucks were transported by the Navy boats to Runit. Once on Runit, we dumped the soil into a pile and then it was prepared to be mixed with concrete and added to the crater, created by a bomb blast from the past. I remember that the Air Force were the guys monitoring us as we came out of the hot zone. I came out hot once and was told to go rub dirt on my yellow boots and to remove my mask and throw it in the trash. I don’t remember wearing a radiation monitoring badge.
  • Removal of debris mean high tide line and out. Diving operations as needed.
  • Mechanic.
  • Operated Michigan bucket loader. Unloaded boats with contaminated sand coming from other islands at Runit into dump trucks to be mixed with cement and taken to the crater area .
  • I just dug holes with my back over the defense nuclear agency and I also work a bulldozer and then in great all and dump trucks hi haul dirt wherever needed to go pick up rocks good manual labor did whatever I was told.
  • Dozer operator.
  • Heavy equipment operator, demolition of bunkers, form construction, part time sailing instructor.
  • Hauled soil from northern islands to Runit.
  • Repaired Heavy equipment and trucks. Operated Wrecker and heavy equipment at battalion motor pool. Lived in hooch at air strip.
  • The loading and unloading of materials and supplies that the island used for ex. fuel, food, commissary items etc.
  • Poured Concrete Cleaned up Radioactive waste around the island.
  • Heavy Equipment Mechanic/Tow Truck driver/Mailman.
  • Truck Driver.
  • Heavy Equipment Mechanic, repaired dozers, graders, bucket loaders, cement trucks either at the repair site on the southern end of Runit Island or using the service truck wherever the broken equipment was located, sometimes on the hot side of the line.
  • I was assigned to repair the fuel trucks and some M-series trucks.
  • Removed and relocated comms equipment, etc.
  • Demolition, Concrete form work driving 10ton dump trucks and general clean up.
  • My crew and I completed the Mess Hall and started the A Frame Chapel. We also had to maintain the maintenance on the hootches and other buildings on the island. When Typhoon Nancy arrived we had to basically start all over on the mess hall, because the roof was gone and also had to repair all the other roofs that were damaged from typhoon Nancy, which was Christmas Eve 1977. Back in Hawaii I was assign to B Co, 84th Engr Bn.
  • Provided electrical maintenance and repairs of various electrical system and equipment on assault craft unit one LCU’s and LCM’s 8 and other small boat.
  • Field Radiation Support Team Surveyed area and troops for radiation.
  • Police patrol duties. Crime and incident investigation and report completion. Dug into soil to fill sandbags during typhoon season to place around entrance of police station to prevent flooding. Sometimes dug as much as three feet into soil behind station.
  • Heavy Equipment maintenance and repairs. Shop NCOIC.
  • Worked mainly on Medren but went to several smaller islands by LARC.
  • I traveled to islands as a medic.
  • Ran heavy equipment in cleaning up tearing down deep water pier and what ever they wanted.
  • Demo with explosives. Then a cement bag buster on Runit.
  • Tore open those 90# sacks of freakin cement all day long!
  • Part of the crew that installed the 2 mW Power plant to provide power to the island.
  • Worked on Runit operating the concrete pump located at the edge of the bomb crater pumping the contaminated concrete into the crater.

As you can see from our roster survey, Atomic Cleanup Veterans’ work experiences ranged from laborers to heavy equipment operators, to the mechanics who kept things going, to the operations and administrative staffs, to the cooks in the mess hall, etc… all worked for a common goal.

We appreciate each and every Atomic Cleanup Veteran who helped our readers get a clearer view of our typical work experiences during our Humanitarian Mission.

You can help us change our “occupational” exposure classification to “at-risk” exposure by letting your Federal Representatives know you want them to support Hawaii’s Rep. Mark Takai’s Bill H.R. 3870 Atomic Veterans Healthcare Parity Act.

Continue to learn more about us from various resources shared by supporters and cleanup participants in future AtomicCleanupVets.com articles. Our articles contain photographs, videos, documents and stories shared by the actual participants who cleaned radioactive contaminated soils and materials from the surface of the islands at Enewetak Atoll.

Article written by Girard Frank Bolton, III. 1977-1979 (14 month) participant with C Company and HHC S-3 (Operations) 84th Engineer Battalion (Combat Heavy) (Fwd) Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands.

Our Current Mission is to help health challenged Atomic Cleanup Veterans become included in the Veterans Administration’s definition of an Atomic Veteran so we can qualify to apply for funds set aside for veterans “who participated in radiation-risk activities during active service.”

Health Challenges Survey Report

Boat Ride Home

The Boat Ride Home – These soldiers are riding in the same vessel that transported radioactive materials during the atomic cleanup mission. They are the soldiers who picked up radioactive materials to be transported. See the uniforms they are wearing? And their great suntans? Notice a lack of protection gear for their exposure to radiation?

We are but a few of the Survivors of the 1977-1980 Enewetak Atoll Atomic Debris Cleanup Mission in the Marshall Islands. 

Our Original Mission was to relocate and entomb radioactive fallout and debris from the surface of the islands of Enewetak Atoll so the dri-Enewetak Islanders could return to their beautiful homeland of 40 Islands in the Marshall Islands.

We accomplished our Humanitarian Mission in 1980. Currently, some of us have health challenges related to cleaning up radiation produced by 43 atomic bombs tested in the Pacific Proving Grounds during the Cold War’s Atomic Test Program.

On May 6th 2014, we started collecting information about our health challenges.

As of November 15th 2015, we have 323 responses to our survey.

264 responded to the question “Do you have any health challenges which may be related to radiation exposure?” 153 said Yes, and 111 said No. The remaining 59 (of the 323) respondents did not reply to the question.

Comments vary from good to bad, but here are how 175 Enewetak Atoll Atomic Cleanup Veterans answered the question: “Comments about your health challenges.” Respondent names have been omitted for privacy reasons. And some information has been edited to maintain confidential information.

  • None known at this time.
  • None at the present time.
  • Chronic joint pain and swelling. Severe cramping of large muscles. Causes paralysis while cramping. Occurs mainly in large muscles in legs. Numbness of feet and hands, liver disease (not alcohol related). Prostate problems, UT problems. Mental Health issues: anger management, ADD, inability to commit (flight instinct). He had 38 different jobs, fired only twice, went AWOL for 32 days after returning from Enewetak. It has also effected his personal/social life as he does not connect with people often, not even family members. Will update with more specific information when his medical file is received and his Physician is able to look at it. Please use this info only if and share with whom it is a necessity, He is a very private person and was hesitant about sharing his information, but he wants to help the other men and believes in the group’s mission.
  • Loss of teeth and a stroke.
  • I currently have Diabetes, Hypertension, Deterioration of Disc in my Spine, Joints are worn in both knees they both need knee replacements (Arthritis) is sitting slowly went to see for Surgery on Spine a High Risk factor so I am on Medical retirement, also having Heart problems carry Nitro pills with me everywhere I go, Bad eye sight and bad hearing starting to set in.
  • Numerous skin cancers and recently prostate cancer.
  • Prostate Cancer which turned into bone cancer, cough, and flushing.
  • Melanoma tumor removed on my left wrist 6 years ago. Doing okay now.
  • I have a lot of bone and joint issues. I had surgery when I was 32 and the doctor told me that my knees looked like I was in my 50’s. I had a cat scan about 3 years ago on my shoulders and collar bone area. The surgeon that I was going to was an old military surgeon. He told me he had never seen anything like it. The disks were just basically gone and my bone spurs were the worst he had seen. He sent me to another specialist. I also have a muscle disease. Plus a couple other things.
  • Colon Cancer.
  • Respiratory problems, skin cancers, constant cough.
  • Severe joint pain and swelling, severe cramping of large muscles, causes temporary paralysis, chronic fatigue, prostate concerns, numbness of feet, mental health issues: anger management.
  • Bone and joint issues as well as problems with my teeth due to loss of calcium.
  • Thank the Lord I’m doing well!
  • Skin condition, hives and swelling. Lung condition, COPD and tumor in left lung.
  • I have a myriad of health issues that I know are directly related to the island. Gallbladder cancer, bladder cancer, diabetes, heart disease, skin issues, joint issues–all of which have caused emotional, mental issues.
  • Discoloration on my legs related to radiation.
  • Kidney transplant patient.
  • Have the normal aches and pains of age. Had asthma as a child so I don’t know if slight breathing problems are from virus’s of winter or anything serious from visiting the island for a couple of days.
  • Started having terrible headaches upon returning to my duty station in the states still have them today thin skin thyroid trouble.
  • Discoloration in my ankles that doctors say may be related to radiation exposure.
  • Melanoma.
  • Enlarged Prostrate Heart Failure Skin Conditions.
  • Severe bone loss.
  • When I returned from TDY I was diagnosed with a growth on my right cheek. And a portion of my salivary gland was removed. And this was in 79. I was told by the dr. that it was only a growth. And that was it. But since the operation in 79, my right cheek has been numb and at times I still feel a real sharp pain and don’t know why. And the va is investigating by sending me to independent Drs. To evaluate this problem. And I guess that I just have to wait for a decision.
  • Have some health issues, but not sure if they are related to my time on Enewetak. Doctors believe there could be a possibility.
  • No health issues as of yet.
  • Bone and Joint diseases Heart Disease. Liver Problems (Non-alcoholic).
  • Stage III-C Colon Cancer, Skin rashes (Jungle Rot), PTSD, Sleep issues since leaving Lojwa, Anxiety since leaving Lojwa, Hammer Toes from running in Jump Boots at Ft. Bragg, Teeth started to splinter and crack very soon after leaving Lojwa, All Residuals from Chemotherapy, Knee and Ankle Issues, Nightmares, Claustrophobia, Fear of Crowds, All Three Offspring suffer from disorders that can also be linked to my exposure to Ionizing Radiation.
  • Breathing issues and Lung problems.
  • Really not sure if health concerns are Eniwetok related but no cancers to date!
  • Cancer but doing better now.
  • Twenty years later my lymph nodes exploded!! in groin started have sleep apnea ,and lower legs neuropathy quad by pass heart condition, body had arthritic sepsis left leg aggressive osteo arthritis in knees and hips and joints at the same time diabetes type 2 with oral and insulin to try to control in 2009 put in wheelchair to present 2014 had i known this was going to do this to my DNA every short of cancer and still waiting for shoe to drop on that! it has just kicked me hard almost lost the battle in 2012 but my wife and kids would not give up on me so i tried to stay active and do valor games!! and paralmypic sports community based and kept going and the VA keeps playing the same tune deny till i croak!!
  • Multiple heart attacks, multiple hernias, arthritis, and prostate problems.
  • My health problems are often labeled as “some type of Autoimmune issues yet to be understood.” My daughter also has some of the same type gynecological problems experienced by the female children of other Atomic Veterans as well as the islanders themselves.
  • Melanoma , several spots, some removed 10 yrs after my duty in Enewetak , the keep coming back.. Seem to have copd or something , have bouts of breathing problems.
  • I have the greatest pair of Lojwa socks. I have just had Aortic Valve replacement surgery. My cardiologist and surgeon stated that the condition of the valve is “more likely that not” due to exposure to radiation.
  • Diagnosed with having Diabetes.
  • I wonder if some of my health problems are because of our trip there. My breathing problems are my biggest problem. While playing softball I had a mishap and slid off of a base and scraped the skin off of one of my legs the size of a Texas softball. We were told that while playing there was to be no sliding because of possible radiation in the soil. For a week I was not allowed to do any of my normal work. I had a scab a quarter inch thick and green in color where I scraped up my leg. I sat in A gangs work area with my foot in a bucket of water and used a sponge to run the water over the scab for a week. There is nothing in my record because on board ship the corpsmen did not keep any records.
  • Had to have my left lung removed because of cancer having kidney problems, heart problem, Lupus.
  • Migraines and severe sinusitis that ultimately resulted in 4 sinus surgery’s and an ongoing regiment of drugs and nasal cleanses that keep me for the most part healthy.
  • Unknown.
  • Rather not say at this juncture.
  • Unknown.
  • I have a paralyzed right hemi diaphragm of the lung since 1993
  • I have Coronary Artery Disease, Diabetes, Osteo Arthritis (both knees).
  • Cancer, arthritis, skin rashes, neck problems.
  • NONE.
  • Dermatology issues.
  • Had a heart attack and a bypass surgery in January 2005, which was linked to the high blood pressure which was service connected. Been informed by eye doctor that I have cataract developing not sure if that may be related to the radiation exposure.
  • Hearing loss and skin cancer.
  • Hyperthyroidism, Hypoglycemia, memory loss.
  • When I was on Enewetak I was burnt by gasoline and med. out to Hawaii for the burn unit. After treatment I was returned to state side to D Company 46th Engr Bn at Fort McCellan, AL. I have pictures of Lojwa and the surrounding areas and enjoyed the water and the beauty of Enewetak, and will remember for ever.
  • Severe spinal arthritis, Crohns disease, fertility.
  • Was there. I’m alive.
  • COPD / abdominal aneurysm repaired Oct 3, 12 another near the heart they won’t do that one because of the copd. health care I use at present is Medicare and Tri Care for life.
  • Sleep Apnea Allergic Rhinitis Hay fever Folliculities & Dermatitis.
  • Bad arthritis, joint pain, loss of muscle tone, skin cancer most on the upper body and the head area.very sensitive lips from getting burnt while walking on the reef on Runit. short term memory loss. Note all my problems started about 10 years after leaving enewetak,except for my lips. that was an on going problem since i left enewetak. i have to limit time in the sun and wear a protective cream to keep them from getting sun burn and blistering.
  • I have many stomach and intestinal issues that I feel are probably related to this issue. I also have a lot of joint pain and have for several years. Also, concerns with the health of my 2 youngest children born after my tour in Eniwetok. My daughter has serious intestinal problems that are caused at childbirth. My youngest son has several serious issues to include loss of eye site in one eye.
  • Joint problems Allergies heart problems.
  • Diabetic, can’t have kids.
  • I do not know whether my daily nose bleeds and sinus/allergy issues are a result of things that may have been inhaled there of while I was participating in the redeployment phase of Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm. Personally, I do not l know what are or will be the long term affects that my tenure of service may have on my health but I do know that I do suffer from shortness of breath and must utilize an inhaler and allergy medicine as a part of my daily regiment to help me to breathe properly. However, I would like to make this an official part of my personal medical history since I was assigned to the Marshal Islands, Enewetak Atoll, Joint Task Group, Field Defense Nuclear Agency Workforce from December 1978 through October 1979; and Southwest Asia, in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia from September – December 1991.
  • Undergoing cancer treatment VA Long Beach.
  • Colon cancer 1995.
  • The VA has already acknowledged my health problems as being from exposure to Agent Orange in Vietnam. I am already rated at 100% disability for Multiple Myeloma and 20% disability for Type II Diabetes. I’m not doing this for my health problems but to be another voice concerning this issue.
  • EVERYTHING FROM BEING CONFINED TO A WHEELCHAIR FROM LOWER BODY NEUORAPTHY HIPS, KNEES, FEET AND AGGRESSIVE ARTHRITIS AND OSTEOARTHRITIS ALL OVER BODY SLEEP APNEA OPEN HEART QUAD BYPASS SURGERY, MASSIVE POTASSIUM LEVELS AND LIVER PROBLEMS.
  • I may or may not…can’t say.
  • None to date so far.
  • Benign bone tumors in rib cage, spinal cord and skull.
  • I have a pituitary adenoma. Had an aortic dissection, copd, hbp. Vision problems.
  • Nothing I am aware of.
  • Renal cancer ~5 years after, suspected this as cause (no family history or other reason known, and surgeon said by doubling factor very likely due to this considering tumor size). Also memory issues, cannot rule this out as contributory factor. Coincidentally, the Army ran the radiation exposure program, and although I turned in my badges, they say they have no record of me, also contacted Defense Nuclear Agency and they also denied I was there…
  • Thyroid issues, glandular problems.
  • None.
  • I am diabetic, Chronic high blood pressure, high cholesterol and high triglyceride’s. I don’t know if it is related or not.
  • Cancer.
  • Not at this time.
  • Lung problem, gout and liver problem.
  • Cancer and bone joint damage.
  • Arthritis.
  • Seeking presumptive review of spine, bone, and esophageal issues as a result of service. Had two cysts removed from my are in 1979, Tripler Army Medical Center from my year on the island.
  • Skin cancers.
  • None that I know of. but I’ve never been checked either.
  • Got type 1 diabetes a few years after leaving, last couple of years have lost all energy just want to sleep all the time.
  • Been trying to get proof that I was there for 15 years now…they cant find the paper work. All I have is a piece of paper that has my name on it with a picture of the islands and other stuff
  • Losing hair headaches etc.
  • Congestive heart failure.
  • I’ve gotten type 2 diabetis and also being treated for high blood pressure and arthritis.
  • Brother in law who served with me during the cleanup got cancer about 2 yrs after returning home.
  • Rod died of kidney and renal cell cancer several years ago. He was my ex-husband. I am adding his name to this roster to record his involvement and service to the military that ultimately killed him due to the radiation exposure he suffered.
  • Unexplained seizures, Unexplained Aortic spasms. 3 unexplained TIA Strokes, degenerative spine disease. Migraines that began after I served. Radiation sickness 4 times.
  • Got type 1 diabetes three years after after tour, loss of energy down at times waiting for whatever is going to happen.
  • I am not sure if the challenges are related to Enewetak.
  • HE HAD HEART ISSUES AND SUFFERED A HEART ATTACK IN 1986, HE ALSO HAD A QUADRUPLE BYPASS IN 1993 AND CATASTROPHIC HEART ATTACK IN 2004. I AM HIS SON AND HAVE LITTLE TO NO INFO ON HIS MILITARY SERVICE. I MYSELF AM A SOLDIER AND WOULD VERY MUCH LIKE TO FIND OUT MORE ABOUT HIS LIFE. PLEASE HELP.
  • Congestive Heart Failure.
  • Been dealing with muscle aches, cramping and diabetes.
  • Thyroid problem.
  • Severe spinal and joint problems.
  • Brain tumor, Epilepsy, Seizure disorder, dental problems.
  • Sterile.
  • Maybe? Hypothyroidism.
  • Had lung cancer, they had to remove my left lung . Then two year later I was told I had lupus.I all so have failing kidneys. They have me on 2,160 mg Myforic. It’s a kidney drug.
  • Bad memories, arthritis both shoulders and neck.
  • Had numerous carcinoma cell removed from hands and carcinoma and basil cells removed from face.
  • Cataracts.
  • High red cell count . Thyroid lump remove. coaxle polyp sinus cavity Caldwell luc procedure most common area of coaxle polyp Marshall Islands with a 2 percent occurrence world wide.
  • Arthritis, joint pain, thyroid, possible breast cancer.
  • N/A.
  • I was diagnosed with a couple of different things. One was retinal degeneration and this was many years ago soon after returning from the rock. Also a rash that seemed to linger for along time. my doc said it was from constant immersion in salt water and sunburns.
  • No challenges at this time.
  • Diabetes, hypertension, heart and stroke problems.
  • Fatigue and Post traumatic stress.
  • I was diagnosed with Acute Myolitic Leukemia in 2011. Received Stem Cell Transplant (formerly called bone marrow transplant) in 2011.
  • I have a few health issues but nothing that can be specifically linked to radiation exposure. I’ve completed my enrollment in the VA health system using my Vietnam Agent Orange exposure and my Enewetak radiation exposure. I was given a battery of test as part of enrolling me in the Agent Orange/Radiation Exposure Registries. I have a doctor’s appoint in Sept 2014. The results of the tests were consistent with tests I’ve had with my primary physician. I’m retired from the military and covered under TRICARE.
  • Just getting old.
  • Yes thyroid problems and pain.
  • I have breast cancer and Lymph nodes cancer on my left side Still waiting on other test results. Have had surgery to remove left breast and Lymph Nodes.
  • Deg. bone disease.
  • Had spinal cord tumor.
  • Have a lot headaches and a lump on my back for a few years now.
  • N/A.
  • Private.
  • Since returning I have remained fairly healthy up until I was 35 yrs old. That is when I had my first “cardiac event” (showing all the signs of a heart attack but no damage detected) at 44 yrs old I had a 2nd with the same results. Over the last 10 years I been diagnosed with an unstable angina, heart murmur, type II diabetes and just 2 yrs ago I had a massive asthma attack (having never had asthma before). I have also had (and continue to have) skin issues (that doctors can not explain) and general aches and pains in most of my joints. Since finding others that were on the Atoll, all the pieces are coming together. All these aliments could be related to my exposure to radiation.
  • Skin cancer(s).
  • Have none at present.
  • Recently diagnosed with Hairy Cell Leukemia. Probable cause high exposure to radiation.
  • I have Osteoporosis, pain in all my joints, Lymphomas.
  • Cellular cancer.
  • Respiratory and bone problems.
  • Acute Random Urticaria with large blisters Diabetes type 2.
  • 3 masses removed from my neck. Keep coming back. pre-cancers on my skin. Always have to have them remove. polyps remove in my colon. Get my colon checked frequently Diabetes Scar tissue in my right eye cataract removal in both eyes.
  • I have had a weird rash on my body since I was there, I have had declining health conditions since being on the islands. I would really like to know what all those shots were that they gave us on Enewetak when we got off the C130. They never got entered into my shot records.
  • Skin cancer and prostate cancer.
  • Had cancer surgery almost ten years ago cancer in a lymph node in my neck thank god clean today.
  • I HAVE HAD LUNG SURGERY, AND A PORTION OF MY LUNG WAS REMOVED.
  • Lost a my left lung to cancer . Lupus and kidney failure.
  • Long history of sinusitis, insomnia. Major breathing issues and cough. Fatigue, anger issues, memory issues. Enlarged prostrate.
  • Currently I have a brain tumor hypothyroidism enlarged prostate high cholesterol high blood pressure diabetic and an aortic aneurysm and I have already had an emergency aortic dissection.
  • Paralyzed right lung.
  • No problems so far.
  • At the age of 26 I started having issues with my legs. I was diagnosed with Peripheral Arterial Disease. Also several breathing issues, Heart Disease with Bypass surgery at 36 years old.
  • I have continuous pain in my legs, arms and hands. I have had numerous growths removed from my neck. I now have more growths on my body. I am diabetic and sometimes have problems breathing.
  • Private at this time. Being treated through VA.
  • Aching joints, had back surgery 20 yeas ago and at time my doctor told me I had the bones of a 70 year old, I was 34 now 55.
  • Not sure, working with Civilian Doctor about some issues.
  • 1983 sent to Walter Reid Medical Ctr. Due to elevated CPK levels, Doctors concerned about my kidney function. 1985 started showing symptoms of Diabetes. 1989 diagnosed with type 2 Diabetes. 2006 parathyroid partially removed. 2007 diagnosed with chronic kidney disease. 2013 kidneys failed.Now on Dialysis. 2014 Diagnosed with prostrate Cancer.
  • Excessive skin cancers, half nose removed major reconstruction. Prostrate cancer 1 year ago.
  • Skin Rashes and Lesions, Parkinson’s, Tinnitus.
  • Skin challenges.
  • Sleep Apnea and Psoriasis, Dermatitis and folliculities.
  • I have a recurring sore at my boot line that has me wondering. In formation we were told high levels were being detected on film badges & dosimeters but not who had the high levels. I would like to know what my exposure rate was while I was there.
  • Radiation burns, unknown rashes,blistering, PTSD, Bone and Joint issues, Hypertension, Late stage colon cancer, low sperm count, and too many others to list. Offspring also suffer from illnesses and defects attributed to a parent exposed to Ionizing Radiation. 43 additional residuals in total.
  • Lung cancer in 95/ head and neck cancer in 2010 /joint problems many more problems.
  • So far I have very few health issues, except those that come with age. I do want my part of the Enewetak Atoll Clean Up Project documented. If I have future health issues, it will be documented.
  • Not that I know of.
  • None so far.
  • Kennedy trouble and skin problems.
  • At this time I have no obvious health challenges.
  • I am in relatively good health at this point.
  • I’ve had multiple skin lesions and cancers removed from my body. I’m now diabetic and no one in my family is or was diabetic. I have multiple spots on my lungs, liver and spleen and they tell me this could have came from where I was raised in Tennessee. I believe the military doctors call it Granulomas. Not sure about the spelling.
  • Early onset of glaucoma and blood now makes to many platelets causing feet and hands to tingle and itch, skin lesions to routinely show up on lower back and lower back pain.
  • Spot on lung being monitored by VA Togus, Unusual liver function test results, triple heart bypass (maybe), hearing problems.
  • Back injuries occurred while stationed at Enewetak Atoll.
  • Cancer.
  • Prostate Cancer.
  • UNKNOWN THYROID CONDITION.
  • Too numerous to go into.

As you can see from our roster survey, not all, but many of our Atomic Cleanup Veterans are experiencing serious health challenges.

We appreciate the relatives who shared information concerning the deaths of some of our Atomic Cleanup Veterans.

We also salute each and every Atomic Cleanup Veteran who helped us get a clearer view of our typical health challenges.

Please let your Federal Representatives know you want them to support Hawaii’s Rep. Mark Takai’s Bill H.R. 3870 Atomic Veterans Healthcare Parity Act.

Continue to learn more about us from various resources shared by supporters and cleanup participants in future AtomicCleanupVets.com articles. Our articles contain photographs, videos, documents and stories shared by the actual participants who cleaned radioactive contaminated soils and materials from the surface of the islands at Enewetak Atoll.

Article written by Girard Frank Bolton, III. 1977-1979 (14 month) participant with C Company and HHC S-3 (Operations) 84th Engineer Battalion (Combat Heavy) (Fwd) Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands.

Our Current Mission is to help health challenged Atomic Cleanup Veterans become included in the Veterans Administration’s definition of an Atomic Veteran so we can qualify to apply for funds set aside for veterans “who participated in radiation-risk activities during active service.”

Please Sign and Share Our White House Petition (Expired 10/15/2015)

We are but a few of the Survivors of the 1977-1980 Enewetak Atoll Atomic Debris Cleanup Mission in the Marshall Islands.

Our Original Mission was to relocate radioactive fallout and debris from the surface of the islands of Enewetak Atoll so the dri-Enewetak Islanders could return to their beautiful homeland of 40 Islands at Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands.

We accomplished our Humanitarian Mission in 1980. Currently, some of us have health challenges.

On September 13th, 2015, we took the initiative to create a White House Petition so the President can be made aware of our challenges and take steps required by Congress to change the law.

After creating our petition, we were made aware that we had a hard deadline of obtaining 100,000 signatures before the President would be informed of our petition.

We found out the White House policy is, if we cannot obtain 100,000 signatures within one month, our petition is removed along with all our signatures and we have to start all over at ZERO.

We encourage you to read, learn and the act on our petition NOW. Our deadline is October 13, 2015.

(MISSION FAILED: ARCHIVED BY THE WHITE HOUSE 10/15/2015 WITH 342 SIGNATURES.)

This is our White House Petition:

WE PETITION THE OBAMA ADMINISTRATION TO:

Add 1977-1980 Enewetak Atoll Atomic Cleanup Veterans to the “Atomic Veterans” definition by the Veterans Administration.

Atomic Cleanup Veterans are not currently considered as experiencing “at-risk” exposure to radiation while relocating radioactive materials contaminated by 43 atomic tests at Enewetak Atoll.

Urge Congress & Veterans Affairs to include within the definition of “Atomic Veterans” the Veterans involved in the Atomic Debris Cleanup of the United States Nuclear Test Site at Enewetak Atoll from 1977 to 1980 making them eligible to receive compensation and health care benefits from the United States Government as specified in the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act.

The Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (“the Act” or “RECA”), 42 U.S.C. § 2210 note (2012) established an administrative program for claims relating to atmospheric nuclear testing and claims relating to uranium industry employment.

We do not expect anyone to blindly sign our petition without knowing our backstory.

We have been fortunate to have gained the attention of several news agencies.

Read the most recent article from a weekly newspaper in Mobile, Alabama called Lagnaippe at http://bit.ly/LagniappeEnewetak

Stars and Stripes Magazine republished a great article written by Abigail Curtis of Bangor Daily News in Maine on 3/24/2015 http://goo.gl/289NYC

On 8/15/2015, KITV 4 News released their story about us in Hawaii http://bit.ly/1NaDXAQ

These are not the only stories news agencies have produced about our current situation.

As much as we appreciate our increased exposure to the general public, we need your help and need your actions to be a top priority.

We’ve been asked “How can I Help?” from most every supporter who takes an interest in our group of Atomic Cleanup Veterans.

Here is a list of “To Do Items” that makes it easy for you to help us in the quickest amount of time:

  1. Sign Our White House Petition at wh.gov/inXsb
  2. Share wh.gov/inXsb on Facebook, Twitter, Google+ & the rest of the internet social networks where you have influential connections.
  3. Write your local newspapers and ask them to share our petition with their subscribers in their publications.
  4. Call your local television and radio stations and ask them to share our White House Petition with their dedicated audience.
  5. Contact your local military & veterans’ associations & ask them to encourage their members to sign our petition.
  6. Ask your friends and associates to sign our petition.
  7. Ask your spouses, adult children, brothers, sisters, aunts, uncles, cousins, grandparents, adult grandchildren and other loved ones to sign our petition so the White House Administration can act on our behalf.
  8. Contact your Federal Senator: Senate.gov/senators/contact/ and share our wh.gov/inXsb White House Petition Link.
  9. Contact your Federal Representative: House.gov/representatives/find/ and share our wh.gov/inXsb White House Petition Link.
  10. Please return to our White House Petition and tell us (in our comments) which signature number they assigned to you at wh.gov/inXsb

Remember: The government refuses to admit our exposure to radiation during the cleanup mission was considered a “radiation-risk” activity. The government continues to state our exposure to radiation was “occupational” in nature. With your signature, we are one step closer to obtaining the health care some of our group members desperately need.

Please write your federal representative and let them know you support our efforts to change the current laws by including the 1977 – 1980 Enewetak Atoll Atomic Cleanup Veterans as Atomic Veterans (as defined in RECA) as experiencing radiation risk exposure to radiation.

Continue to learn more about us from various resources shared by supporters and cleanup participants in future AtomicCleanupVets.com articles. Our articles contain photographs, videos, documents and stories written by the actual participants who cleaned radioactive contaminated soils and materials from the surface of the islands at Enewetak Atoll.

Article written by Girard Frank Bolton, III. 1977-1979 (14 month) participant with C Company and HHC S-3 (Operations) 84th Engineer Battalion (Combat Heavy) (Fwd) Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands.

Our Current Mission is to help health challenged Atomic Cleanup Veterans become included in the Veterans Administration’s definition of an Atomic Veteran so we can qualify to apply for funds set aside for veterans “who participated in radiation-risk activities during active service.”

Atomic Cleanup Help Wanted

DNA-Patch

We are but a few of the Survivors of the 1977-1980 Enewetak Atoll Atomic Debris Cleanup Mission in the Marshall Islands.

Our Original Mission was to relocate radioactive fallout and debris from the surface of the islands of Enewetak Atoll so the dri-Enewetak Islanders could return to their beautiful homeland of 40 Islands at Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands.

Atomic Cleanup Help Wanted – The Defense Nuclear Agency is looking for personnel required to clean up radioactive debris and soils contaminating 40 islands in the Marshall Islands located in a remote area of the Pacific Ocean known from 1946 – 1958 as the Pacific Proving Grounds for the U.S. Nuclear Test Era directed by the Atomic Energy Commission.
Forty-three atomic bombs were tested at Enewetak Atoll leaving behind radioactive fallout and debris from over 1100 megatons of yield created by detonating Americium-241, Cesium-137, Cobalt-60, Plutonium-239, Plutonium-240, Strontium-90 and other radioactive elements.
One hour accumulated background radiation levels vary depending on said island. Three of the 40 islands show 62,849 R/h on Runit Island, 3,501 R/h on Enjebi Island, and 651 R/h at the Lojwa Island Base Camp.
The Defense Nuclear Agency has been authorized by the U.S. Federal Government to hire personnel from government approved private sector contractors, various federal government agencies, a government approved marine biology lab, and volunteers from current members of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard. No hazardous duty pay will be provided. No special health insurance shall be provided. A modest per Diem pay (less daily expenses) shall be provided. Military Transportation shall be provided. Housing (IE: tents with cots, temporary structures with metal bunk-beds and wall lockers, furnished trailers, furnished permanent structures) shall be provided. Meals shall be provided. Laundry shall be provided. Limited medical care shall be provided.
Participants are expected to work ten to twelve hour days, six days a week for the average 179 day assignment. Radiation protective gear (IE: none, painters masks, gas masks, or full radiation suits and equipment) shall be provided.
Amenities include living on at least one of the secluded tropical islands with fantastic views of starlit skies, Pacific Ocean sunrises and Enewetak Atoll’s beautiful lagoon sunsets. Free waterfront activities include: 24 hour day or night waterfront walks or sitting on the beach, watching the waves, collecting shells, watching sea-life (IE: sharks, dolphins, whales, flying fish, parrot-fish, lobsters, etc), fishing for sharks, swimming, snorkeling, scuba diving, spearfishing, 12′ sunfish sailing, catamaran sailing, military boat and helicopter rides.) Other amenities may or may not include: retail stores, outdoor theaters, local broadcast television, local broadcast radio, USO Shows, baseball games, jogging, weight lift equipment, barbershop, pool tables, clubhouses, outdoor grilling, rat stomping and lots of parties.
Other than the provided postal mail system, opportunities to converse with families and friends will be rare. No family members will be allowed to visit. All information about the atomic cleanup mission shall remain confidential until an undisclosed date.
Applicants shall be aware that this mission is the last and final stage of the Atomic Test Program which began as the Manhattan Project and is a part of the Human Radiation Experiment Program.
Job positions required include but is not limited to radiation testing personnel, construction skilled and semi-skilled laborers who will locate and hand carry radioactive debris to one of several designated areas for disposal, concrete workers, framers, plumbers, electricians, machinists, heavy equipment operators, dump truck operators, boat operators, helicopter crew members, demolition experts, explosive ordinance experts, crane operators, LARC crew members, medical staff, cafeteria staff, supply personnel, laundry staff, security personnel, operations and administrative personnel.
Applicants shall be contacted by their employers or military superiors for an opportunity to volunteer or will be voluntold to participate in this confidential mission. Upon completion of the 1977 – 1980 Enewetak Atoll Atomic Debris Cleanup Mission, most participants (including state side personnel required to record radiation readings from urine samples collected from cleanup participants) shall be awarded the Humanitarian Medal from the U.S. Government as a gesture of thanks for putting yourself in harms way while preparing the islands for the return of the people who lived at Enewetak Atoll before the atomic tests began.
Please be aware that although most health complications caused by exposure to ionized radiation may not be detected for up to 30 to 50 years after exposure, no long term health care studies will be provided after your participation of the mission. Classified documents including personnel records, health records, radiation records, and other documents will be maintained by the U.S. Federal Government and will not be accessible or will have limited access in the future.

The above advertisement is a piece of pure fiction. It was never posted by anyone or any government agency prior to this publication. It was written as if the truth in advertising and full disclosure were standard operational procedures and was practiced for classified government and military operations.

The content however, is closer to the truth than what was commonly disclosed prior to most volunteering or being “voluntold” to participate in the 1977 – 1980 Enewetak Atoll Atomic Cleanup Mission.

I was one of the few from the 8,000+ participants who volunteered. In fact, I volunteered twice for a total of 14 months at Enewetak Atoll. Most of the Atomic Cleanup Veterans were voluntold to participate in the mission.

I’m one of the lucky veterans who served at the atoll with limited health complications. I’ve met many who are struggling with health challenges. Our roster survey shows about one-third state they have no health challenges. However, two-thirds believe we are experiencing health challenges due to our exposure to ionizing radiation.

The government refuses to admit our exposure to radiation during the cleanup mission was considered a “radiation-risk” activity. The government continues to state our exposure to radiation was “occupational” in nature.

Please write your federal representative and let them know you support our efforts to change the current laws by including the 1977 – 1980 Enewetak Atoll Atomic Cleanup Veterans as Atomic Veterans (as defined in RECA) as experiencing radiation risk exposure to radiation.

Continue to learn more about us from various resources shared by supporters and cleanup participants in future AtomicCleanupVets.com articles. Our articles contain photographs, videos, documents and stories written by the actual participants who cleaned radioactive contaminated soils and materials from the surface of the islands at Enewetak Atoll.

Article written by Girard Frank Bolton, III. 1977-1979 (14 month) participant with C Company and HHC S-3 (Operations) 84th Engineer Battalion (Combat Heavy) (Fwd) Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands.

Our Current Mission is to help health challenged Atomic Cleanup Veterans become included in the Veterans Administration’s definition of an Atomic Veteran so we can qualify to apply for funds set aside for veterans “who participated in radiation-risk activities during active service.”

Search and Rescue Mission – Day 4

 

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Ken Walker, Administration, JTG, Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, ~1979

We are but a few of the Survivors of the 1977-1980 Enewetak Atoll Atomic Debris Cleanup Mission in the Marshall Islands.

Our main focus is to help each other with information and moral support during challenging times of our declining health.

Our secondary focus is to urge Congress to change the current laws and recognize soldiers of the cleanup mission as “veterans who participated in radiation-risk activities during active service.”

We have a new mission. However, this time, it is your choice to accept or refuse this mission.

As of Day 4 of our new Search and Rescue (our memories) Mission, three of our Atomic Cleanup Brothers accepted our mission.

You too are encouraged to list every 1977-1980 Enewetak Atoll Atomic Cleanup Mission Participant you remember.

Some of our memories have blurred over the years. It is ok to provide partial information and misspelled names. We can correct the information as our information grows.

Review this list of remembered atomic cleanup veterans and let us know what you can contribute to our knowledge database.

  • Behrens, Maj, Army, S3 Operations Officer, 84th Engineer Battalion, last seen by gfb3 at Enewetak ~1978
  • Bruce, Guy, Manager, Holmes & Narver, last known location was Andalusia, Alabama, last contact via phone by gfb3 ~2004
  • Buzzard, Lt, Army, S3 Operations, 84th Engineer Battalion, last seen by gfb3 at Enewetak ~1979
  • Castle, Art, Army, 84th Engineer Battalion, last seen by gfb3 at Hawaii ~1980
  • Chadwell, Mike, Army, 12B10, B Company, 65th Combat Engineer Battalion, Schofield Barracks, Hawaii. Enewetak, Lowja-Sep. 1978 -Feb. 1979 Worked at batch plants as a bagger. – last seen by kbb at Lojwa February 1979
  • Collins, Danny, Army, Cpt, C Company Commander, 84th Engineer Battalion, last seen by gfb3 on the internet ~2000
  • Green, “Top”, Army, C Company 1st Sgt, 84th Engineer Battalion, (kept his word that if I volunteered to go to Enewetak, I would do drafting work at Enewetak after Cpt Collins wanted me to go to Lojwa. Top Green arranged my transfer to headquarters s3 – gfb3), last seen by gfb3 at Hawaii ~1980
  • Huffman, Eugene “Bruce”, Army, Draftsman, S3 Operations, 84th Engineer Battalion, last seen by gfb3 at Hawaii ~1979
  • Kehe(sp?), Ernest, Army, 84th Engineer Battalion, last seen by gfb3 at Enewetak ~1979
  • Krouse, Frank, Army, Mail Clerk, JTG, last seen by gfb3 at Enewetak ~1979
  • Lewis, Army, 84th Engineer Battalion, last seen by gfb3 at Hawaii ~1980
  • Simpson, Bob “Scrapper”, Army, B Company, 84th Engineer Battalion, Arrived and left with gcp (Apr to Oct 79), 62E10 (Heavy Junk Operator), last I knew he returned to his unit in Panama Christmas of 79, We were brothers from different mothers; The picture I posted of me holding a bottle of Bacardi, Bob is the other guy holding a fifth. – last seen by gcp ~1979
  • Tucker, Col, Army, Commander, 84th Engineer Battalion, last seen by gfb3 at Enewetak ~1978
  • Walker, Ken, Army, Administration, JTG, (gfb3 enjoyed many scuba dives with Ken – at least one involved sharks), last seen by gfb3 at Enewetak ~1979

The above information was provided by the first three who accepted the challenge to participate in our Search and Rescue Mission: Gary Pulis (gcp), Girard Bolton (gfb3) and Kevin Bartlett (kbb).

It is our hope to find as many of the 8,000+ participants of the atomic cleanup mission as possible.

You to can fill out as much of the information requested in the form below. No worries if you only remember partial info. We can add your info to others who accept this mission.

Within a short time, we should have an overabundance of information. Then the real work begins.

Decide now to help find every “Lojwa Animal”, “Runit Rat”, “Medren Rat”, etc.. you remember from “The Rock” or more commonly known as Enewetak Atoll.

Your Mission Continues Now.

We urge our supporters to encourage their politicians to create legislation which will include Enewetak Atoll Atomic Cleanup Participants in the U.S. Government’s definition of a veteran “who participated in radiation-risk activities during active service.”

Article written by Girard Frank Bolton, III. 1977-1979 Atomic Debris Cleanup Participant with C Company and HHC S-3 (Operations) of the 84th Engineer Battalion (Combat Heavy) (Fwd) Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands.

Search and Rescue Mission

Al-Gettier-Lojwa-base-camp-03

We are but a few of the Survivors of the 1977-1980 Enewetak Atoll Atomic Debris Cleanup Mission in the Marshall Islands.

Our main focus is to help each other with information and moral support during challenging times of our declining health.

Our secondary focus is to urge Congress to change the current laws and recognize soldiers of the cleanup mission as “veterans who participated in radiation-risk activities during active service.”

We have a new mission. However, this time, it is your choice to accept or refuse this mission.

You are encouraged to list every 1977-1980 Enewetak Atoll Atomic Cleanup Mission Participant you remember.

The information you provide will help us account for every person who put their’s and their family’s health at risk because of exposure to ionizing radiation during the cleanup mission.

It is our hope to find as many of the 8,000+ participants of the atomic cleanup mission as possible.

Fill out as much of the information requested in the form below. No worries if you only remember partial info. We can add your info to others who accept this mission.

Within a short time, we should have an overabundance of information. Then the real work begins.

The next step is to form a volunteer group to start searching the internet for everyone listed.

Decide now to help find every “Lojwa Animal”, “Runit Rat”, “Medren Rat”, etc.. you remember from “The Rock” or more commonly known as Enewetak Atoll.

Your Mission Begins Now.

We urge our supporters to encourage their politicians to create legislation which will include Enewetak Atoll Atomic Cleanup Participants in the U.S. Government’s definition of a veteran “who participated in radiation-risk activities during active service.”

Article written by Girard Frank Bolton, III. 1977-1979 Atomic Debris Cleanup Participant with C Company and HHC S-3 (Operations) of the 84th Engineer Battalion (Combat Heavy) (Fwd) Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands.

Introducing Our Supporters – Lisa Villa

Lisa Villa LD 1487

 

We are but a few of the Survivors of the 1977-1980 Enewetak Atoll Atomic Debris Cleanup Mission in the Marshall Islands.

Our main focus is to help each other with information and moral support during challenging times.

Our secondary focus is to urge Congress to change the current laws and recognize soldiers of the cleanup mission as “veterans who participated in radiation-risk activities during active service.”

State Representative Lisa Villa of Maine is our group’s first political supporter. She’s not the first political supporter who has fought for atomic cleanup veterans’ rights and failed. She is OUR GROUP’s first political supporter since Gary Pulis created our Facebook Group July 4, 2012.

I learned she took an interest in our difficulties while talking with Atomic Cleanup Veteran Paul Laird.

Paul tells me that Lisa was getting her car serviced at his family’s business recently and he got to talking about Enewetak and his health challenges.

Paul was one of the bull dozier operators who cleared an island of vegetation and contaminated soils so the Lojwa Base Camp could be built to house soldiers that would scrape and pick up as much radioactive soils and debris as directed by the guys in radiation suits holding Geiger Counters.

Paul worked ten hour days six days a week covered with contaminated soils. The wind carried dust from his dozier’s bucket from the time he scraped the soils until he placed it in the dump trucks. He says by the end of the day, all you could see were the whites of his eyes and his teeth if he smiled.

Jungle boots, socks, short pants, t-shirt, jungle shirt and hat was his standard uniform. Nothing worn to protect him from the dusty contaminated soils from going into his mouth or nose. He was told painter’s masks were on back order.

Paul says his medical chart lists challenges with Renal cell carcinoma in his kidney, situ carcinoma in his bladder, hearing loss, diabetes, and high blood pressure even though he looks to be in good physical shape!

Lisa Villa not only took the time to listen to Paul’s story, but Lisa took the time to befriend our group and pay attention to our challenges. She took notes and got others involved.

Then, she mentioned the Enewetak Atoll Cleanup Mission Veterans’ struggles during her speech at the Maine State House of Representatives floor debate of LD 1487. “An Act to Implement Managed Care in the MaineCare Program”.


 

Thank you Lisa Villa!

We urge our supporters to encourage their politicians to create legislation which will include all Marshall Island Atomic Cleanup Veterans in the U.S. Government Veterans Administration’s definition of a veteran “who participated in radiation-risk activities during active service.”

Article written by Girard Frank Bolton, III. 1977-1979 participant with C Company and HHC S-3 (Operations) 84th Engineer Battalion (Combat Heavy) (Fwd) Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands.

Thanks goes to Paul Laird for sharing his experiences at Enewetak Atoll and his conversations with Lisa Villa.

High praise goes to Lisa Villa for not only taking an interest in our plight, but standing up and talking about it with politicians who can help her help us.

Much appreciation goes to Andrea Parkinston for capturing Lisa Villa’s speech and posting it on her YouTube channel.

Credit goes to Bridgton Library for publishing Lisa Villa’s speech in their Newsletter.